I do this many times when I play with VM’s (virtual machines); so I’ve to leave written all I normally do after a Fresh minimal Debian Install

First of all, I’ve not set the apt repositories yet for a quicker install.

$ echo "deb http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
$ echo "deb-src http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free" >> /etc/apt/sources.list

Once you’ve added the url for repositories you can start to install all you need.

For basics:

$ apt-get update
$ apt-get install -y vim vim-scripts mc screen less links curl sudo rsync openssh-server
$ update-alternatives --all (this changes your default editor and more)

Check whether there’s an enabled group in sudoers

$ visudo 

Check for the following line, normally enable in Debian.

## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands
%sudo	ALL=(ALL)	ALL

Add your user to this group

$ adduser 'myuser' sudo

Check login with your new user through ssh and sudo something.

If so, you’re done!!

Once here, you’ve to decide if it’s a server or a desktop machine, so you’ll have to choice what you want to install.

Remember to install virtual-machine guest tools!